If I Refinance a Home My Wife Quitclaimed to Me Solely, Does a New Mortgage Void the Quitclaim?

Typically a mortgage and a Deed are handled as separate but related entities in the matter of refinancing.

A new mortgage document does not void a Deed; only the creation of a new deed voids a previous deed.

The mortgage note-holder obtains a position against the deed within the mortgage contract (not on the deed directly), then it is the responsibility of the deed holders to ensure the deed reflects the intended ownership interests of the property.